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This towards the south; that is, down the slope. Several other agrees with the character of the chipping industry found shafts evidently belong to the Bronze — and Hallstatt Age.

The site was chosen shaft no. From the entirely by chance, for no arteficial shapes were evident here. From the level of cm down the rising surface of the slope.

The untouched floor consists Photo XXVIII the shaft sharply expands on every side, and first of a thin layer of fine sand with Fe-bands, overlying a at a depth of 7 m its diameter was some cm.

At a depth rough detritic sand with large black stains of decayed of on the south side of our sounding a boulder appeared managnese. At the bottom of the Chalcolithic extraction was yielded by the excavation Trench shaft we encountered a pile of large, unchipped chert pebbles, VI situated in the upper part of a hillside in the mining which fell out of the profile along with cores and flakes Area VI, between the Trenches VI-8 and VI-9 mentioned Photo XXXVI.

Its horizontal western profile there is a low horizontal corridor that can be length was 13 m, and it was sloping down by 4.

The seam extracted deviates from the profile only to appear again at its end was represented by a detritic sandy deposit with numerous Profile 8d. If we measure the distance from the assumed chert pebbles in current depth of 3.

As far as at the 18th metre, the sterile elsewhere perhaps from the the west , so with the trench we bottom falls in bow-like shape and then continue vertically by perhaps cut into a small segment of mutually interconnected 70 cm down the slope, and then at 20 metres it disappears in crawlspaces, dug out horizontally into the slope on the level the trench bottom in the Trench VI, 2 m southwards, the of the richest seam.

Only a thin layer of sediment on the granodiorite sector of pure Miocene sand. Most finds and charcoal pieces bedrock near a flat boulder with a carved circle in it at point to be dated were offered by mixed loams filling up the upper III-3 contained sherds of vessel of the late Lengyel culture cut into the loess at the 10th metre, and a subsoil cavity filled Photos CX-CXII.

In the area with many traces of intensive up with chipped stone industry Photo XLI. Dating of this chipping there were also some patined pieces from the particular situation into the Final Eneolithic is confirmed by Palaeolithic, and a disk-like cores from the Early Bronze Age.

Valoch and — VERA The pottery from pits 1 and 2 is In-runs of loams and sands into another disarranged ornamented with a furrow stroke Furchenstich of the type sediments in the subsoil aslant down the slope e.

The depth of the 19 m , an accumulation of loam at 15—16 m and another one extraction pits is unknown, but it certainly exceeds 1.

In these cloaks one can observe at some places which were often reduced by use of the so-called splinter secondary intrusions — e. Blade cores are divided filling at 12 m.

The origin of the material filling such missing, and the used raw material is of very low quality. But above the intact loess with fossil soil no other completely missing.

It is probable that a number of seam with cherts could have been situated. This is suggested by vertical dividing lines between sediments in cross sections as well as by the Late and Final Eneolithic extremely irregular course of the main mining wall at 10 While the extraction from the turn between the Neolithic and metres.

Spoil heaps from two extraction levels in the trench Eneolithic could be awaited because the mining of lithic raw VI are covering the lower terrace in the Trench VI, materials was blooming in all of Europe at that time, the which is filled up purely with sand and lacks any Upper beaker cultures from the Final Eneolithic with a lack of Holocene soils.

But yet, this activity cm lower down at the declining hillside. Its bottom in the demanding a long-time settling down in a landscape without depth of 2.

Breccias are only existence of any other extraction terrace. The trench was sporadic, among cores they are completely absent. Of similar intentionally situated at a place where the convex hillside up character are also the industries from the excavation Trenches from the bottom of the valley turned into a slightly concave VI and V Tab.

It is to be said that the surface structures we could detect in the Trench VI At the fifth metre, i. The sediments began to occur.

Several assemblages from various actual diameter Profile 11ab. At the bottom there was a distinctly concentrated sites we evaluated more precisely.

The step-like depression towards north i. This became deeper and dated assemblages come from the filling near the front broader towards NE.

The shaft had only a slightly open mining wall on the upper terrace. Chipped hornstone, but rather undercuts it — maybe in order to industry rested here freely, without any stable sediment facilitate the subsequent top-down digging off the sediment.

This situation proceeded further into the W The sandy seam containing large pieces of rounded section, in the adjacent cross section it faded out soon.

The granodiorite and pebbles of the KL chert smaller or equal to above-mentioned data obtained from charcoal are dating this 20 cm lay in the depth of — cm, it means immediately activity back to the time of the Bell Beaker culture.

By far the above the step in the bottom. Larger amount of chipped most frequent are minute waste and fragments. Among cores industry occurred only in a brown detritic loam in the mouth predominate the reduced and exhausted pieces, among flakes of the shaft, down to 1.

Inside the the ones without cortex. Flake cores are solely unidirectional stony-sandy loam appeared an accumulation of sheep or goat and irregular.

Five vertical range of 40 cm the inclination of the filling. All of specimens of flat cores are based on thick flakes Fig. None of remains of some ample meal.

From the bones obtained date the cores shows blade scars, which fact corresponds to an of GrN There occur flakes sector VI The cores remind of the Chalcolithic industry thinned by ventral flat removals, but their distinguishing from from the sector VI The reverse percentage order of flake cores is quite subjective.

The balanced spectrum of cores and types with regard to cortex may be connected with a small flakes with predominance of non-cortical specimens suggests size of sample, but mainly with the fact that inside the shaft that no component of the reduction sequence is missing.

It is there was no massive concentration of chipped industry, undoubtedly the result of a mass chipping somewhere in close which would testify to a developed chipping activity.

The vicinity that was finally almost in entirety thrown down under predominance of cortical flakes is thus the result of an the mining wall, even together with functional hammerstones.

The whole assemblage is functionally the above-mentioned radiometric data are related. Common indistinct and apparently inhomogeneous Fig.

The Cut I through a Lengyel culture LgK , which fact suggests an advanced core distinct extraction pit at the N edge of the mining field we reduction.

The same is indicated by a higher occurrence of have placed near the Spot I, which yielded a typical Early reduced and exploited cores. Some of them end in using the Bronze Age industry with discoidal cores, and we supposed splinter technique.

The absent, just as flat cores with inducted parallel reduction results, however, were surprising. The bulbs on flakes often light-coloured fine sands at the depth of 3 m.

The end of the look as if they were struck off, showing distinct scars. In the depth of 3. The later collection is moving inside the however, the trench undoubtedly goes deeper.

Since the reach the extraction bottom by means of the trench, only a existence of such a well-developed discoidal technique is not borehole drilled into the bottom in the quadrant 6D yielded proved in the Late Eneolithic on our territory cf.

In the north part of the trench occurred a sharply question the higher date — we must namely consider the delimited deposit of hard coarse sands of rusty colour, at the possible distorting effect of burning old trees.

Vast majority of chipped industry we acquired from the Thus, it seems that the shaft was distinctly funnel-shaped Trench I, laid across the bottom and the mouth of the whereby the upper diameter may have reached up to four most distinctive depression south of the rock with spot height metres.

In the lower part there were apparently various in the mining area I Profile There were some shallow undercuttings and irregular hollows in the subsoil.

As to fill in the bottom part of the trench. The middle portion of geological structure, most important was the Trench I the shaft is filled up with light-coloured fine sand quite Photo XLIV , which opened the terrain from the rock with abundant in chipped industry and pebbles of the KL chert.

Chert had been processed at higher contained cherts, only in the detritic deposit at the depth of elevations, the extraction pits are situated as far as the plateau 3.

However, this deposit below the hill. This is also corresponding with an abrupt remained untouched by the extraction. The very seam break of granodiorite bedrock that begins to distinctly slope extracted thus must have been situated lower down.

The said break was filled in with markedly stratified From a charcoal piece directly in an accumulation of sands with gravel and with large hornstone boulders.

Clearly predominant over the generally be stated that in the downward direction the small cores are flakes with slightly prevailing non-cortical chips are decreasing and the cobbles with only few removals items.

Ten blades occurred here as well. The most abundant increasing, apparently raw material tests or misused pre- is of course productional waste, which fact is caused not only cores.

An almost continuous pavement of small chips, several by sifting the sediment Tab. The reduced cores are dm thick, lies at the periphery of this shallow pit.

Not even at predominated by flat cores and other flake cores as well as a distance of 4 m from the margin of the depression has at a exploited pieces.

Among flat cores the unifacial depth of 1. Quadrant 10 was situated in the middle of suggests that it is a one-shot productional accumulation close the pit, at its deepest place, and contained most pottery to the mouth of a pit.

At the same time, none of the reduction fragments as well. Charcoal from the depth of cm sequence components are missing so that probably only a few yielded the date GrA- The raw material pieces were taken away.

Low from the wall, there was a two times higher ratio of cores than quality of the raw material caused a quite extensive approach in the previous one.

We can register a moderate increase in to processing of the material extracted. Almost a half of the semi-cortical and non-cortical flakes compared to those with industry consists of waste and minute fragments.

Considerably lower is the ratio of waste. Flat core-like pieces vastly predominate the remnants and cores are distinctly predominant.

The most frequent flake cores are years, nevertheless they are almost identical from the view of usually the unidirectional ones Tab. Flakes technology and composition and, moreover, interchangeable with cortex remnants are almost twice as many as the non- with characteristic industries of the Early Bronze Age.

Among Age, 1 small graphite sherd pertain maybe as late as to the reduced cores predominate the discoidal ones, almost all of Urnfields or the Hallstatt Period.

The most chipped industry them with centripetal reduction, and quite irregular. From the of the whole cut rested inside the fissures in weathered proper shaft bottom at the depth of cm come two granodiorite, which outcrops in the cutting above the said discoidal cores, one of them the most advanced from all of break at the depth of 30 to 60 cm.

One third of the dating back to the early stage of the Late Lengyel culture cubage, however, consisted of rock. The industry structure is GrA The composition of cores is similar to the previous one, extremely high is only the ratio of diametrically different from the previous sample, with cortical and above all semi-cortical flakes Tab.

The largest extraction pit of the entire mining area I is Thanks to a coincidence of technological traits with the date situated in its north part, E of the old branch roads, which are quoted we can assume that the relevant part of filling was penetrating the main road from the west side.

Perpendicular to thrown into the shaft from the close vincinity, possibly during this hollow way, i. The industry is therefore and 1 m wide Trench I in This revealed a shaft maybe mixed whilst the older component is prevailing, corresponding in its mighty size to the dimensions of a surface though not very numerous Tab.

Because of a low depression Profile 16a-b. This one yielded mouth of the shaft disappeared behind the end of the trench, namely a considerable amount of minute debitage and but the horizontal boreholes at the depths of and cm relatively few cores.

On this level namely the horizontal level have laid in a trench across a shallow depression in pure yellow sand was detected, which cm further bended order to investigate the remains of Mesolithic extraction.

This in the middle of the trench vertically down to the depth of can be followed up only from the depth of 1. There the prehistoric shaft ran against a very hard deposit recesses into a very hard granodioritic detritus with cherts.

In of granodioritic detritus with pebbles of the KL hornstone. In question is again proceeded down where it disappeared at the depth of also the origin of such a thick deposit on the original?

In the W front section this surface of Mesolithic extraction because in close vicinity are wall could be seen only at the south edge, namely as a not any Early Bronze Age shafts at least the typical symmetrical mirror image of its outline in the S section.

The extraction pits are missing here. Massive infeed of sediments sharp incision in its middle height undoubtedly marks out a by gravity is improbable with regard to small inclination of local enlargement of the shaft at the place of a richer seam.

It is also possible that the miners firstly had to dig borehole at the depth of cm about 20 cm away from the away some overlying sediments, creating then spoil heaps in N section recorded it at a distance of 60 cm.

It is obvious that the vincinity, which were levelled later, but still in the the shaft at these depths distinctly expanded towards north.

Thic may be also indicated Vertical borehole into the non-investigated block at the bottom by the mostly sandy less stony character of the overburden showed that the subsoil detritic deposit with cherts continues than that which would correspond to the seam extracted.

Charcoal from the The horizontally dug-away sand berm namely declined hearth was dated: The fourfold towards SW in form of two gouged-out steps down to the predominance of flakes over cores, and a large amount of fourth sandy level, the surface of which, once more minute productional waste indicate it is a homogeneous horizontally dug-away, lay cm below the upper level collection from a workshop in situ, where cores had been Photo XLV.

Various stages of core reduction are middle part of the filling it can be supposed that the extracted represented here very evenly. Among flakes predominate seam was represented just by this sort of deposits, containing those with cortex remnants, flat and other reduced cores are the sought-after chert breccias.

Even at the depth of 6. A borehole into the bottom detected lowly formalized, flakes irregular. As if this marginal zone 70 cm lower down some loose greyish brown sediment.

At the depth extraction pit in the central part of the mining area II. Fifteen between 90 and cm below the current bottom a bowl-like thousands kg of artefacts acquired thus come from a depression dating from the Urnfield Period recessed into the space sized about 0.

The initial hollowing-out of the shaft 26, and Many of the most typical artefacts are made of is associated, most certainly, with the assemblage discovered breccia chert, namely of a yellowish variety, which however at the depth of — cm, i.

The most remarkable technological 18, , and More than a third of the artefacts are element is represented by flat cores, mostly with centripetal made of chert breccias, all of them with fine glossy binder reduction Fig.

The average weight of breccia or parallel Fig. Several shapes look as if they were artefacts slightly exceeds that of chert products.

Compared to prepared for the Levalloisian method Fig. This phenomenon had been observed as well in another mainly on account of spatial context and technology.

Breccia cores had been the Trench II across a deep extraction pit Profile 17a-c, reduced exclusively by the discoidal method Fig.

In five Photo IL. It became apparent that it is a similarly sized shaft items we recognize ventrally thinned flakes Fig.

The like that one in the Trench I and it also had been later re- relatively abundant waste more than two hundred pieces excavated in the upper portion of the filling.

The outline of without sifting indicates a collection emerged from a the trench in the north and south section is not the same, chipping process somewhere near the shaft, and thereafter since the trench had been extended in the meantime.

The thrown inside during the initial phase of its filling up. It is manifested without chipped industry. Its diameter was about 7. The funnel- in the N-S direction along the bottom of an elongated shaped mouth of the shaft declined in form of irregular steps extraction pit, the biggest one in the entire extraction downward and at the depth of 1.

Both main sections and W side in the actual profiles. Thus, from the local the interpretation as follows. At the south end of the trench depth of 2 m downward this N wall lay about 3 m away from at the 5th metre occurs at the depth of — cm a more or the opposite drawn section, created only by filling.

The less horizontal deposit of stony detritic sand, which then course of intact shaft walls we then detected at the depth of declines downward together with the trench front, and later 5 m where from the N section emerged a very compact clayey- disappears therein.

The bottom consists partly of solid sandy sediment of rusty colour with an irregular network of granodiorite, rounded and covered with a sort of white lime, grey inlet rifts from above.

Because of the absence of stones, and partly of granodioritic detritus, very hard, with pebbles of the seam extracted must have been situated even deeper.

Granodiorite is covered at some places with a Perpendicularly along the projection of intact wall indeed thin layer of apparently intact sand.

The sand on the declined another brown clayey-sandy sediment with artefacts. The subsoil level ascended reddish-brown sands and loams, at some places with a below the S section, and above the granodiorite appeared not considerable amount of chipped industry, showed a sharp only sand but also breccia blocks.

The large pieces of chert inclination towards south and a moderate one towards west. On the surface of hard detritus were some high section thus the actual extraction bottom was situated.

In at the bottom of a depression. A very thick flakes with total weight of 74 kg. While in both industry, the most valuable collection is that from the Trench sections the chipped industry was not very numerous, with II, from the depth of — cm Profile 19a-b, Tab.

The ratio of breccias increases again with mentioned stone barrier appeared in the W section huge advanced reduction, among non-cortical flakes they create numbers of artefacts, leaving together with granodiorites and about a third, among blades about a half of the amount.

In explanation of this situation contributed a short unidirectional specimens Fig. N section, in which this thick deposit of chipped industry Most abundant are again the abruptly slopes down along a sandy-detritic loess deposit non-cortical flakes, blades sometimes of high quality, Fig.

The subjacent layer rests on large At the 1st metre of the E section, in this subjacent In the south extension of a massive elongated extraction layer there is an intrusion sloping south where it creates a Pit II lies a separate depression, at the bottom of which the depression filled in with dark rusty sand.

These are probably Trench II was opened, sided 1. The traces of the progress of a later extraction, which first took upper 25 cm consisted of sandy loess, and thereunder rested place in the older filling to cut it later in west direction aslant detritic sandy loam of dark colour.

In this layer, from the down to an unknown depth. The age of this further extraction depth of 1 m downward, large unrounded granodiorite blocks phase was revealed by another Trench II laid aslant into began to appear, which later covered the whole bottom of the the N closure of the extraction pit.

Most part of the filling is trench this filling, however, proceeded further downward. The Near the NW corner of the trench there was a spoil heap of situation can be interpreted as intentional ceremonial?

From the depth of 90— cm we took to the height of 1 m above the bottom, and we held it out a sample of chipped industry that occurred here in a originally for an intact wall.

However, it turned out these are distinct cluster. Remarkable is the 2. The accumulation fluently passes over into a thick numerous as waste.

Cores as the largest artefacts had been stony deposit in the lower part of the E section containing an probably picked up from the surrounding workshops.

The sandy loams with isolated stones, artefacts and scattered concentration of charcoal between the depths of 80 and charcoal.

The deposit is water-impermeable and proceeds cm probably testifies to a similar process of closing the shaft down to an unknown depth.

Directly inside the largest like in the previous case. In its N section, this filling can be supposed below the with cherts, and the granodiorite bedrock appears only in boulder heap at its base.

Thereafter several episodes took form of boulders at the south edge. However, the original place with mass chipping of cherts, interleaved with reverse geological situation is considerably altered by extraction.

One of the phases of the chipping procedure left The section Profile 21 shows the stratigraphic sequence behind a dense horizon of chipped industry as well as at the detected.

In a trench 10 m long and 5 m deep we discovered base of the upper loessy deposit in the west section. The one- surrounding tertiary sand.

The excavation continued further metre square No. From 1 m2 come pieces of depth of 2. The composition - culture fig. The of industry is standard with usual representation of main charcoals from the depth of cm were also dated into groups Tab.

The lithic industry from predominate over the discoidal and flat ones 10 , numerous this trench Fig. Most flake cores show an irregular reduction sophisticated technological removals as preparational and sequence The only blade core is on Fig.

Here appeared also the characteristic multicoloured NW of the spot height Finds could be acquired from the breccia chert, reduced sometimes in the same "paralevallois" upper 60 cm pcs of chipped industry with total weight manner as at the above mentioned site.

From the depth of 0 to cm we counted altogether From the small space of a fifth of cubic metre come almost 4 cores with the weight of 62 kg, and 14 pcs — 57 kg of thousand 60 kg artefacts, in the range very similar to the flakes.

About a half of this amount was concentrated in the previous collection Tab. Flakes approach depth of cm. At all levels the unidirectional flake cores sometimes close to Levalloisian forms Fig.

There are more numerous and better mastered than the discoidal occurred 10 chipped-off crested blades and 23 different kind ones Fig. Debitage is very coarse, as if large pieces of Among the cores from the small Trench III outstands raw material were broken up utterly casually.

Flakes are 44 a large breccia specimen with flat underside and arched times as numerous as cores, which probably means that upside Fig.

As an evidence of a completely different technique, The northernmost extraction pits of the 4th mining area however, also a large prismatic core occurred with front ridge are located below the upper edge of the slope and never go adjustment weight 1.

Another pits, lying as far as in the N part of the Up to now, no pottery fragments could be found in the adjacent plateau and on the other steep slope, belong already mining area IX, which is situated about m NE of the area to the mining Area V Map 7.

To this field we paid our III Map 5. It is the northernmost mining field of the south attention mainly in when four trenches were opened group in the closure of an erosion valley created by a small there.

All of them show a similar stratigraphy: In the axial Trench IX sands or hard loams rests a very light-coloured sandy loess above the current spring, the deposits of Holocene alluvial deposit containing sherds — in three cases from the Hallstatt sediments from the old spring horizon reach at some places Age, in one case from the beginning of the Urnfield Period.

In higher-situated portions of the In the darker and thicker bottom part of the filling there was same trench their thickness is reduced to 90 cm, and they no pottery found whereby the charcoal pieces from the cover the granodiorite bedrock, which is furthermore covered Trench V were dated back to the Early Bronze Age.

It ragged bedrock projections, but also large rounded boulders was the case of the Trench IX on the north directed surrounded for the most part by sterile sands.

In a cellar-like towards S slope above the spring where numerous chipped space between the boulders probably emerged an industry occurred down to the depth of 60 cm in shovelled accumulation of cherts, which are represented in the intact gravel-sandy sediments.

In the Even in the absence of any datable sherds, the chipped west section this seam is completely exploited and instead of industry from mining Areas III and IX shows such an it remained here loamy rusty sand with granodiorites and accordance that the contemporaneity of them cannot be pebbles of the KL chert, but with no chipped industry.

Although the Krumlov, yielded so far no pottery material. It testifies namely to a field where mainly subrecent stone pits occur in the stony massive illimerisation process where below the humus appears subsoil.

The interpretation of extraction in the Trench V is a bleached-out layer and thereunder a very compact thick very difficult, but also here one can follow up two main horizon enriched with clay, brown-coloured due to phases of filling up and furthermore maybe a trace of any precipitated iron and manganese.

The upper bleached-out older activity Profile 25a-b. Some more remarkable clusters layer of 15—20 cm thickness reminded of grey dust loam and of chipped industry lay at the depth around cm with a contained clusters of indistinct chipped industry.

Its lower piece of charcoal dated back to the Early Bronze Age: GrA- part was bordered by a thin rusty horizon and thereunder The In both corners at the bottom of the trench, in the E section closest relation to the above-mentioned date have of course appeared some finer, one shade lighter loams.

In the E section the assemblages from its vicinity Tab. Already from the depth of showing traces of the splinter technique , the discoidal cores 60 cm downward charcoal began to appear, which then are represented almost as frequently as another flake cores.

At the depth of — cm in the shapes, except for one unidirectional piece with centripetal quadrant 6D, there occurred two decayed charred logs or reduction.

All of them are wedge-shaped in section Fig. Just as in previous shafts, this collection testifies to a in thickness Photo LXV , surrounded by disintegrating relatively advanced core reduction core remnants, non- fired granodiorite blocks and numerous charcoal pieces cortical flakes, but not very much waste.

The first one of two On the opposite slope the mining Area VI is situated largest clusters of chipped artefacts occurred directly in this Map 7 where we already described extraction from the area, the other one a half metre lower down.

At the bottom of beginning and end of the Eneolithic, and extensive activities the trench not shaft at the depth of 2.

Most valuable is the accumulation of chipped predominant in all the other mining areas, could not yet be industry with a charcoal deposit GrA However, the shaft The discoidal Fig.

Common traits of 39 is dated by many indications into the period under all collections from the shaft are the lack of minute waste, the investigation.

In the industry from the whole fill discoidal low frequency of flakes, the absence of regular blades and cores predominate over those with non-flat reduction, which predominance of discoidal cores Tab.

The first Trench VII was opened in the cut, all sections consisted of a very monotonous filling, less than 1 m N of the west end of an erosion furrow running most of the layers differed from each other only by the through the bottom of a valley in the east part of the mining amount of granodiorite blocks and chipped industry.

The area Photo XIX. A rich deposit of macrolithic industry filling consists of granodioritic detritus with sharp-edged as created a cluster sized about 2 m2, situated 5—15 cm below well as rounded grains up to large boulders of rock, which the actual surface Photo 8.

The largest industry there was also an increased amount of detritus and accumulation of big blocks is to be found in the N part of the coarse sand, probably deposited by water.

The investigated W section, in the opposite section then at the 5th metre and area yielded artefacts with total weight of 34 kg Tab. The sterile subsoil occurred at 38, and 39, Fig.

Comparing these data already 1—2 metres at the depth of 3 m. It was created by undoubtedly indicates that the small fraction in the cluster is somewhat unmoved boulders of the volcanic origin rock in size about underrepresented pcs in favour of a higher occurrence one metre, which probably rest on the compact bedrock of cores 83 pcs and debitage.

The chert pebbles are not very frequent in the whole The most valuable information was offered by the Trench sediment filling, maybe because they were removed and VII, excavated on the slope about 40 m apart of the water splintered to pieces.

The entire trench rested in of chert in this type of sediment, but then in the mining area the filling, and we could not detect the edge of the shaft I we ran across a seam of similar, very hard granodioritic anywhere.

With regard to the size of the trench bottom this detritus, which contained numbers of the KL chert pebbles means that both the diameter and depth of the shaft must have and had been extracted in various periods.

It is likely that been considerably exceeding 3 m. This could be proved only by extending the trench there is a distinct, as though artificially levelled plateau trench northward.

Below them followed a multicoloured group of layer of surface humus and immediately thereunder down to strata consisting of Miocene sands with an extremely high the depth of a half metre.

Review of discoidal cores, quite occurrence of small quartz pebbles, distinctly declined towards developed and with all reduction schemes, is shown on Tab.

The transition between the subsoil and the strata with From among interesting shapes, two unifacial cores with finds is fuzzy.

Chipped industry was not very abundant, which centripetal reduction Tab. Although and 38 indicate a mastered laminar core reduction Fig. Another striking of the mining area II, below a sort of levelled plateau there is trait is the microlithic character of the assemblage.

The ratio of a group of boulders with flat upsides. Sediments rested on a flat predominate over the flake cores. We also recorded a single scorched bedrock at the depth of 0—60 cm, covered with ca blade Fig.

Seven years later it was followed by another the deposition of the strata with finds, however, regarding the longer Trench V, described in the text part dealing with the very moderate declination and small height of the slope above Early Bronze Age.

It is dated by a group of sherds and a completely absent here, cf. The irregular character of Bronze Age GrA However, the industry is caused by the use of raw material with many associated ceramics Fig.

The fissures, holes, petrosilexes, small quartz crystals, and with typical blades are missing, as well as the formal tools Tab. The silicite matrix is very coarse-grained 46, and Due to the excavation method used, the advanced as well.

From the only one square metre evaluated emerged workshop collection is probably a little depleted of small over 7 thousand artefacts Tab.

Among cores predominate the broken remnants and The extraction activity dating from the Hallstatt Period could fragments, followed by initialised pieces.

Blades are basically absent late period is based on the interplay of four indications: With the one single exception depicted, these shafts from earlier periods this is most obvious on lower blades neither had been used as tool blanks.

Down to the depth of 1. Further down the the preceding two criteria are not fulfilled; often we must shaft broke through variously coloured and with different content ourselves with the fact that the most thickenss of sand layers, in some places with detritus, but with characteristic traits of other periods are not present.

At the very bottom in the depth of about The first and the subsidiary fourth condition will be cm and below, there were fine yellow sands without any fulfilled in all of the situations mentioned above, the second stones.

Similarly as the shallow shaft 2, this trench apparently and third condition only in a few of them. The age of the late did not ran either across the seam with cherts.

In effect it is shafts could not be proved in a single case but neither undoubtedly connected with the absence of the usual disproved by a radiometric date.

However, even in an ideal enlargement at the bottom as well as the funnel-shaped mouth case, when all the criteria quoted would be fulfilled, we will of the shaft.

That feature created a moderate oval, which obtain only a terminus ante quem, because the considerably slightly exceeded 1 m in the E- i.

At the of a shaft when immediately filled up. We must further very bottom there was a very fine yellow sand containing a consider the fact that the younger the situation the higher is large amount of chipped industry and numerous sherds of the danger of contamination of finds i.

There was namely determination by M. Particular shafts were then dated to the Early Eneolithic and The accumulation at the bottom was taken out completely, indirectly also to the Early Bronze Age.

Initialised cores are a little more abundant brown sands with detritus at the border between the 9th and 50 pcs than the exploited cores 44 pcs , but over both 10th metre in the west section Profile 28, Photo XX and these groups predominate the cores under reduction, among LXIX.

Frequent is the reduction have been reaching down to a considerable depth, because a on the ventral side of thick flakes 10 pcs, Fig.

At the depth of — cm in the N section occurred concavity of knapping surfaces Fig. The flake types an inexhaustible amount of chipped industry together with with regard to cortex are in balance all together Tab.

Blades are basically missing, a blade core occurred only and even larger and strongly rounded granodiorite pebbles. Nine ventrally thinned flakes are Above and below the depth quoted, the chipped industry associated with flat cores on flakes.

The collection represents suddenly vanished. From the thick accumulation only a a balanced product of an intensive chipping activity.

The balanced sample was taken out Tab. Surprising is a relatively low frequency of flakes and the bottom of the shaft quite intentionally, and not waste and, on the contrary, a large number of cores, mainly accidentally during the filling up, so it is an intentional those that were reduced.

Among the reduced cores deposition. Another part of the same production probably got predominate the unidirectional forms.

The frequency of flakes to the depth of 3 m into the filling of the Shaft No. It is probably the remnant of a The next Shaft No. Below the brown, at the structure and technology the collection exactly copies the base more black humous delluvial deposit with graphite assemblage from the bottom of the neighbouring Shaft No.

The unilateral that one filling in the mouth of the shaft 5. Down to the depth of 4. From among 26 flat cores, 6 are on flakes m we lowered the surface level by a quadratic excavation, Tab.

Among sparsely represented flakes predominate further down the shaft became wider, and for static reasons the semi-cortical items; blades are completely missing Tab.

The 51 and The middle of the been undoubtedly situated in the place of a remarkable 9th shaft, however, lies about 75 cm more eastward than the enlargement of the shaft.

A hand test pit into the E section shaft 8 so that it distinctly runs into the ground plan of the indeed detected after 45 cm a hard detritic sediment with Shaft 10, where it ends with a flat bottom at the depth of pebbles of the KL chert and granodiorite.

A test pit into the cm. It is possible that the test pit the shaft. In all samples, as standard, just as it was the case with the Shaft No. Down to the upper part of the enlargement at the depth the stability of many features across all depths and backfill of 4.

This prehistoric test pit neither detected a bed of without stones, with two accumulations of chipped industry cherts, at least because it proceeded mostly through an old at the depths of — cm and — cm.

Most probably only some larger artefacts from the the Shaft No. Its mouth appears fuzzy in form of yellow nearby workshop were thrown in.

At the depths of 4. The Shaft 11 then ended with a horizontal, directly below a black-brown delluvial deposit with graphite slightly extended bottom at the depth of almost 6 m in a layer sherds, and breaks through the whole filling of the Late of fine rusty sand.

At the bottom again appeared a distinct Lengyel Shaft No. The profile of the Shaft 8 could be detected on sherds and charcoal.

According to a borehole into the W wall the E and W section, which are situated about 70 cm away at the depth of 2.

However, from the documentation is clear deep as 2 m below its bottom, on the bedrock , and no that the shaft was oval in plan, with the long axis of less than artefacts occurred in the filling as well.

Their concentration at 1 m parallel to contour lines whereby the length of its fall-line the very bottom of the resultless test pit is herewith axis in N-S direction can be only estimated — on the marginal undoubtedly intentional.

In contrast to another deposits it sections it seemed to be unrealistically small, and in between shows, as standard, a predominance of flakes and waste over it hardly exceeded 80 cm.

At the depth of cm occurred cores Tab. In two places somewhat higher up, the Shaft 8 In all the three Shafts 8, 9, 11 coming out of the upper disturbed towards south the Shaft No.

The very often only 1 dominant final scar. Unlike the unidirectional bottom with a dense accumulation of chipped industry was cores and sporadic cores with changed orientation, the pieces mantled with a deposit of brown-grey loam.

Just as the Shaft with two opposite platforms are almost missing and blades 5, also this shaft had not reach the seam with cherts, and and blade cores are basically missing as well.

The situation where later extraction disturbs a Late Except the bottom, there were no artefacts found in the Lengyel shaft occurs again in the Trench VI In the 1 m wide E section the filling of the Shaft 16 deeper the backfills of both phases of the Shaft 13 widened took up the whole width, and only at a depth of 2.

At the bottom of the pieces of hornstone. Except the massive concentration at the appeared large chert pebbles sized up to 20 cm, and even bottom there were basically no artefacts found.

Flakes and larger pieces of granodiorite. Both of the shafts proceeded waste predominate over cores; there occur many small halved further down, but narrowed to less than one metre.

From the and tested pebbles. It is pieces with serrated flaking surface. Thus, the course of the shaft 13B was strongly Another Shaft No.

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With regard to the During the survey of Palaeolithic sites in the region in I absolute newness of the topic in the Czech archaeology, our have noticed the extensive forest plots bestrew with unpatinated research should have first of all gathered up as many as cores and flakes.

It was striking that the production waste, possible data on the age and character of mining and the visible on every road, molehill and in the soil churned up by represented industries.

This goal was accomplished. As the summary does not respect the original structure of It concentrated mainly below the edges of flat boulders, which the book, the attention should be drawn at least to the most at first sight appeared to be convenient stools for prehistoric important tasks.

The main and at the same time the longest stone knappers. A cut besides one of these boulders Photo chapter 4 includes a comprehensive description of our VIII yielded already at that time a smaller assemblage of chert excavation trenches, investigated shafts and their backfills.

In a section was prepared by K. The main part here is represented by the analyses of selected Gebauer in a water groove at the bottom of the later delimited samples of chipped industry, all of them supplemented with mining area VII because V.

Effenberger reported on finds of thorough pictorial documentation. Certain conclusions can coarse-shaped artefacts from the places.

However, they gave up be drawn based on combinations of discovered facts, the work after having discovered some indistinct sherds, and the ethnological observations, literature retrieval and own container with finds from that year remained forgotten in the deliberations, as is shown in closing chapters 8 and 9.

At the end of the Eneolithic last day of the second excavation campaign at the Palaeolithic this extensive and in its time maybe the most intensive station Vedrovice Ia on 30 August, At that time it was no longer focused on and they were bound to marked terrain inequalities.

Artefacts and ecofacts were completely taken status, appreciated exchange goods or valued offerings. Such out only from trench I investigated in — Later on a conclusion may not be probably plausible to researchers the industry in more or less closed patterns had been who adhere to archaeology in a form they had learned in their preferably taken out though only from more remarkable youth.

It did not times. Eggenburg — Ottnang sandy sediments with numerous Desired but unanswered remained the permanent redeposited Jurassic and probably also Cretaceous cherts.

On the Dyje and Svratka rivers and its central area is m above sea sediments from the erosion furrow in the mining area VII, level.

Most of the cherts are characterised by a black cortex, containing artefacts and charcoal down to a considerable formed by weathering under arid climatic conditions.

It is, however, very difficult to differentiate the very homogeneous, whatever depth it is obtained from. Lower Palaeolithic component from the later intrusions, The geography of the area is as follows Map 2.

Despite especially as chert-made artefact are concerned. The majority of extraction sites appear on the The problem of possible contaminations concerns also surface as circular or lightly elongated hollows up to 1.

Artefacts can, however, be found almost stratigraphic data. The first one is a collection of coarse flakes anywhere in the forest, so particular districts are not sharply and subdiscoid and cubic cores, along with one chopper and delineated.

They all lie in the eastern part of the wooded terminal-retouched flake originating from the extinct loam-pit ground.

One flake and one separated by 2 km from the northern group containing areas bone were found "in situ" in the reddish-brown loam, probably IV—VIII.

All the southern districts contain extraction pits with of the Eemian age, the rest in the secondary position on the a considerable quantity of extracted stones inside and outside.

They contain numerous choppers, boulders of granite and chert breccia, surrounded by a chopping tools, heavy-duty scrapers, carinated forms, rarely profusion of production waste.

In the northern group the old also hand-axes one of them is made of imported andezite: It seems that here chert was sometimes extracted from the to take into account the exact technological and typological sediment caches close to igneous rocks, where exceptionally structure of these inventories.

Problematic is above all the large chert boulders were preserved Photo XIV. As the raw material period did not occur for a long time.

Even though this was dolomitic limestone and cretaceous chert "spongolite". The industry is unfortunately not Northern France , K. Effenberger discovered in the area in the following scrapers, denticulates and notched flakes.

Surprisingly also years dozens of sites, mostly of the Early Upper Palaeolithic cretaceous chert spongolite appears in it. EUP sites was successfully carried out, these will be mentioned The use of the Levallois reduction strategy is manifested also later.

All the findings from the region are housed in the in the collection from Jamolice I, about 10 km to the West from Anthropos Institute Moravian Museum, Brno.

There predominate cores with non-laminar scars, blades and the XI. It has a considerable Another two Middle Palaeolithic sites were also found in share also in the Szeletian industries on the Drahany Upland the area: The tools are composed of numerous denticulates, is lacking here.

Together with leaf points from other raw By far the largest number of sites belongs to the Early materials spongolite, radiolarite they are appearing here Upper Palaeolithic.

The Szeletian occupation was more only as finished exemplars. The mentioned raw materials are general than the Aurignacian one, only one site can be practically missing in the debitage.

The latter is formed by classified as the Bohunician. In these assumption of J. SVOBODA , l54 that the archaic regions then the Levallois elements are being singularly appearance is caused by the presence of coarse by-products of transferred even onto other raw materials, including the Upper Palaeolithic workshops.

The really high age of one of the local Szeletian les area. The sites, even though very rich, occupy throughout industries from Vedrovice V was confirmed by the Groningen a smaller area with a higher concentration of findings than radiometric data as around 38 th.

Accordingly, the the Szeletian ones. The chronological range of these assemblages Fig. Here can, however, be noticed already a seems to be very large.

Among the leaf points is also a at the sites with numerous polyhedric burins the cores used to somewhat higher proportion of imported raw materials.

An be narrower more in the burin-like form , although with less advanced preparation of cores, mostly laminar ones, can be laminar scars.

The percentage of leaf According to the experiments by P. Neruda it is nearly points is here on the contrary unusually low. It is therefore probable that the raw that period the regions were no longer exploited.

The extent material was dug out from a certain depth, but direct proofs of settlement described in the paper is considerably biased by are still lacking.

Employed was almost exclusively local chert the forestation of higher elevations, in which mainly the of type I, i. In contrast to the occur.

Szeletian imports are almost absent. On all the sites has taken place a very intensive production of laminar supports, but the XI.

We will not get into details of the subject, because it Onto these two sites have not been imported large blades or will be a theme of the future project.

The radiocarbon date GrA- flakes typical products and by-products of the Vedrovice The tool size from both stations is represents a terminus cum quem or ante quem.

The same is true for the very late Aurignacian dates from the complicated system of shafts I KL 33 and site in Albendorf Lower Austria where chert of the 35, Tab.

The mining in pits I and I was carried material. The Mesolithic the local chert outside of it. It is, of course, probable that chipped industry is very indistinct, with regard to local certain Aurignacian complexes Vedrovice Ia, layers are conditions relatively small-shaped, with irregular as well as already contemporary with the Gravettian settlement under parallel cores.

In its dimensions it differs from collections of all the Pavlov Hills. There are about 10 pieces 0. In recent publications about the sites of Pavlov I and by V.

In the majority of cases this concerns on the surface. This is apparent from the quality of the blade side scrapers of a quite Szeletian appearance on the flakes cores which often have a ventral flat preparation recovered with a black cortex and fresh edges.

Some specimens cannot, of course, be Late Neolithic. In spite of this, an even wider distribution, differentiated from the so called "Moravian Jurassic cherts" although indicated by a much smaller quantity of artefacts, of a more general occurrence.

Small Epigravettian or Final Palaeolithic boundary of the Brno region. About 15 cm below the more often recovered in mining fields, appearing also in footbowl lay a large flat stone.

From the depth of five meters larger, homogenous pieces. Even if it was possible to use we removed only the sandy filling of the prehistoric shaft with sources of finer chert found east of the Krumlov Forest , there very sparse evidence of chipped stone industry, without major was obviously deliberate choice.

The backfill was separated from the intact A different situation is noted in the younger, already early Miocene sand by a white lime crust Photos XX-XXI.

At a Eneolithic stage of the Lengyel culture. The circular cross section of the shaft as used in Moravia: Linear pottery culture LBK appears as bell-like enlargement, right at the level where small — Middle Neolithic: However, culture StK the size of the pebbles did not exceed 10 cm.

The — Late Neolithic. On August 20, P. Kostrhun — Early Eneolithic: The following day — Lower Eneolithic: The body of a young woman originally — Late Eneolithic: However, pressure of sediment can hardly Nearly all Early Eneolithic dated situations were explain the position of the skull, which faced the opposite discovered in trenches into the rather steep slope below a direction than it would be expected to face, as it was facing chert-breccia boulder in the eastern part of the VIth zone.

The Our trench downward VI, Photo XVII; Plan 3, Profile 1 half-meter distance of the shoulder joint from the skeleton, began next to a meter-high boulder, which was undoubtedly and especially the elbow turned the other way, from the spine placed there by human hands, as it lies on replaced loam backwards, allows us to speculate that the body may have containing many flakes.

Above the boulder the slope is more been placed into the pit in pieces. Radiometric analysis of gradual, while beneath it in the direction of the valley the human bone yielded a date of GrA Somewhat to By the separated arm lay two chert hammerstones; the east and down the slope was trench VI, below the immediately adjacent to the skeleton lay four cores, a blade trench the slope descent steeply, and ends on the floor of the flake and a chip Fig.

About 60 cm below the first valley with an intermittent creek, swamp, and noticeable skeleton, P. Kostrhun came across the leg bones of another terrain features on underlying granodiorite rock.

This one lay anatomically trenches we discovered quarrying activity in at least three, undisturbed, but in a highly unusual position.

In the upper excavation VI, the Her hands were clasped behind her head, her head faced extraction went down up to eight meters, where it struck the slightly to the left.

The open jaws were evidently related to the bedrock shafts 7 and In the central segment of the post-mortal drying of the tendons.

As with the first skeleton, trench VI, the bedrock rises to a depth of about 3 meters, sandy sediment in the area of the rib cage was darker.

The but against the slope it drops sharply again to unknown pelvis and torso with head lay 25 cm lower than the feet, so depths northward and eastward shaft At her left breast of the In shaft no.

In part of the bowl supplied the date GrN It is interesting that besides this bowl, there buried. This is also indicated by the length of the skeleton, was not so much as a single other sherd fragment.

Here we are uncertain the wider area near the bottom did we find a single sherd of due to inadequate documentation. Via a crack between the stones on the southern side Thus no numbers referring to the position of the individual we got to a final depth of cm.

It can be assumed that the bones were assigned, the importance of which we did not enlargement of the shaft between and cm Profile 34 realize at the time.

In the sediment above the bottom more shaft, and the legs towards the wall. It is probably and cm in the western extension somewhat more to the south, also logical that when they filled in the shaft, the first thing to with nose towards the center of the shaft.

About 10 cm go in was the sand excavated from its bottom. Its of the female body. Nearby the skeleton lay three precores of center lies about 6.

The three shafts together hammerstone Fig. Removal of the refilling formed an isoceles triangle, which of course does not mean of the undercuttings was stopped about 20 cm below the that there were no other pits here Plan 3.

It can only be lower skeleton, and we removed the sand from the center of assumed that the given dimensions was at that time in that the shaft only.

The slightly concave bottom was found at a place the most frequent distance between individual shafts.

It consisted of calcified detritic The mouth of shaft 17, covered by debris from the Hallstatt sediment of rusty brown color, much hardened.

Drilling down Age containing graphithic pottery, was found at a depth of 2. Both edges of the shaft mouth on the eastern and western of this sediment was undoubtedly for prehistoric miners a side were broken by later shafts.

The dated charcoal comes good reason why the shaft was not deepened further — but the from a depth of about cm GrA In sediment above consisted of fine, light sand mixed with chert the highest part the diameter of the shaft is about two meters, pebbles that is easily dug away.

It is not clear, however, whether our trench did not the western direction, to the left of the head of the lower actually cut into the widest part.

We did not reach the bottom skeleton, which exposed a seam with small cherts Photo of the shaft, because of the danger of landslide after heavy XXVI.

The undercutting expanded only to a distance of 35 rain. The entire documented excavation went through fine, cm from the perpendicular wall.

On the bottom itself, towards light sand without any significant deposits of flint; therefore the west, lay the bones and jaw of a pig.

From the lowest part the seam must have been deeper. They mined into the In the profile of the lower two meters of the filling are in the slope horizontally and at greater depths, or when the seam rusty sand evident some more clay-like stripes, bending descended, the undercuttings continued via small branch upward and facing toward the northern wall with the tunnels.

We encountered the first method in trench VI, skeletons. From the charcoal burials with grave goods Mauer near Vienna. This towards the south; that is, down the slope.

Several other agrees with the character of the chipping industry found shafts evidently belong to the Bronze — and Hallstatt Age.

The site was chosen shaft no. From the entirely by chance, for no arteficial shapes were evident here. From the level of cm down the rising surface of the slope.

The untouched floor consists Photo XXVIII the shaft sharply expands on every side, and first of a thin layer of fine sand with Fe-bands, overlying a at a depth of 7 m its diameter was some cm.

At a depth rough detritic sand with large black stains of decayed of on the south side of our sounding a boulder appeared managnese.

At the bottom of the Chalcolithic extraction was yielded by the excavation Trench shaft we encountered a pile of large, unchipped chert pebbles, VI situated in the upper part of a hillside in the mining which fell out of the profile along with cores and flakes Area VI, between the Trenches VI-8 and VI-9 mentioned Photo XXXVI.

Its horizontal western profile there is a low horizontal corridor that can be length was 13 m, and it was sloping down by 4.

The seam extracted deviates from the profile only to appear again at its end was represented by a detritic sandy deposit with numerous Profile 8d.

If we measure the distance from the assumed chert pebbles in current depth of 3. As far as at the 18th metre, the sterile elsewhere perhaps from the the west , so with the trench we bottom falls in bow-like shape and then continue vertically by perhaps cut into a small segment of mutually interconnected 70 cm down the slope, and then at 20 metres it disappears in crawlspaces, dug out horizontally into the slope on the level the trench bottom in the Trench VI, 2 m southwards, the of the richest seam.

Only a thin layer of sediment on the granodiorite sector of pure Miocene sand. Most finds and charcoal pieces bedrock near a flat boulder with a carved circle in it at point to be dated were offered by mixed loams filling up the upper III-3 contained sherds of vessel of the late Lengyel culture cut into the loess at the 10th metre, and a subsoil cavity filled Photos CX-CXII.

In the area with many traces of intensive up with chipped stone industry Photo XLI. Dating of this chipping there were also some patined pieces from the particular situation into the Final Eneolithic is confirmed by Palaeolithic, and a disk-like cores from the Early Bronze Age.

Valoch and — VERA The pottery from pits 1 and 2 is In-runs of loams and sands into another disarranged ornamented with a furrow stroke Furchenstich of the type sediments in the subsoil aslant down the slope e.

The depth of the 19 m , an accumulation of loam at 15—16 m and another one extraction pits is unknown, but it certainly exceeds 1.

In these cloaks one can observe at some places which were often reduced by use of the so-called splinter secondary intrusions — e. Blade cores are divided filling at 12 m.

The origin of the material filling such missing, and the used raw material is of very low quality. But above the intact loess with fossil soil no other completely missing.

It is probable that a number of seam with cherts could have been situated. This is suggested by vertical dividing lines between sediments in cross sections as well as by the Late and Final Eneolithic extremely irregular course of the main mining wall at 10 While the extraction from the turn between the Neolithic and metres.

Spoil heaps from two extraction levels in the trench Eneolithic could be awaited because the mining of lithic raw VI are covering the lower terrace in the Trench VI, materials was blooming in all of Europe at that time, the which is filled up purely with sand and lacks any Upper beaker cultures from the Final Eneolithic with a lack of Holocene soils.

But yet, this activity cm lower down at the declining hillside. Its bottom in the demanding a long-time settling down in a landscape without depth of 2.

Breccias are only existence of any other extraction terrace. The trench was sporadic, among cores they are completely absent. Of similar intentionally situated at a place where the convex hillside up character are also the industries from the excavation Trenches from the bottom of the valley turned into a slightly concave VI and V Tab.

It is to be said that the surface structures we could detect in the Trench VI At the fifth metre, i. The sediments began to occur. Several assemblages from various actual diameter Profile 11ab.

At the bottom there was a distinctly concentrated sites we evaluated more precisely. The step-like depression towards north i.

This became deeper and dated assemblages come from the filling near the front broader towards NE. The shaft had only a slightly open mining wall on the upper terrace.

Chipped hornstone, but rather undercuts it — maybe in order to industry rested here freely, without any stable sediment facilitate the subsequent top-down digging off the sediment.

This situation proceeded further into the W The sandy seam containing large pieces of rounded section, in the adjacent cross section it faded out soon.

The granodiorite and pebbles of the KL chert smaller or equal to above-mentioned data obtained from charcoal are dating this 20 cm lay in the depth of — cm, it means immediately activity back to the time of the Bell Beaker culture.

By far the above the step in the bottom. Larger amount of chipped most frequent are minute waste and fragments.

Among cores industry occurred only in a brown detritic loam in the mouth predominate the reduced and exhausted pieces, among flakes of the shaft, down to 1.

Inside the the ones without cortex. Flake cores are solely unidirectional stony-sandy loam appeared an accumulation of sheep or goat and irregular.

Five vertical range of 40 cm the inclination of the filling. All of specimens of flat cores are based on thick flakes Fig.

None of remains of some ample meal. From the bones obtained date the cores shows blade scars, which fact corresponds to an of GrN There occur flakes sector VI The cores remind of the Chalcolithic industry thinned by ventral flat removals, but their distinguishing from from the sector VI The reverse percentage order of flake cores is quite subjective.

The balanced spectrum of cores and types with regard to cortex may be connected with a small flakes with predominance of non-cortical specimens suggests size of sample, but mainly with the fact that inside the shaft that no component of the reduction sequence is missing.

It is there was no massive concentration of chipped industry, undoubtedly the result of a mass chipping somewhere in close which would testify to a developed chipping activity.

The vicinity that was finally almost in entirety thrown down under predominance of cortical flakes is thus the result of an the mining wall, even together with functional hammerstones.

The whole assemblage is functionally the above-mentioned radiometric data are related. Common indistinct and apparently inhomogeneous Fig. The Cut I through a Lengyel culture LgK , which fact suggests an advanced core distinct extraction pit at the N edge of the mining field we reduction.

The same is indicated by a higher occurrence of have placed near the Spot I, which yielded a typical Early reduced and exploited cores.

Some of them end in using the Bronze Age industry with discoidal cores, and we supposed splinter technique. The absent, just as flat cores with inducted parallel reduction results, however, were surprising.

The bulbs on flakes often light-coloured fine sands at the depth of 3 m. The end of the look as if they were struck off, showing distinct scars.

In the depth of 3. The later collection is moving inside the however, the trench undoubtedly goes deeper. Since the reach the extraction bottom by means of the trench, only a existence of such a well-developed discoidal technique is not borehole drilled into the bottom in the quadrant 6D yielded proved in the Late Eneolithic on our territory cf.

In the north part of the trench occurred a sharply question the higher date — we must namely consider the delimited deposit of hard coarse sands of rusty colour, at the possible distorting effect of burning old trees.

Vast majority of chipped industry we acquired from the Thus, it seems that the shaft was distinctly funnel-shaped Trench I, laid across the bottom and the mouth of the whereby the upper diameter may have reached up to four most distinctive depression south of the rock with spot height metres.

In the lower part there were apparently various in the mining area I Profile There were some shallow undercuttings and irregular hollows in the subsoil.

As to fill in the bottom part of the trench. The middle portion of geological structure, most important was the Trench I the shaft is filled up with light-coloured fine sand quite Photo XLIV , which opened the terrain from the rock with abundant in chipped industry and pebbles of the KL chert.

Chert had been processed at higher contained cherts, only in the detritic deposit at the depth of elevations, the extraction pits are situated as far as the plateau 3.

However, this deposit below the hill. This is also corresponding with an abrupt remained untouched by the extraction. The very seam break of granodiorite bedrock that begins to distinctly slope extracted thus must have been situated lower down.

The said break was filled in with markedly stratified From a charcoal piece directly in an accumulation of sands with gravel and with large hornstone boulders.

Clearly predominant over the generally be stated that in the downward direction the small cores are flakes with slightly prevailing non-cortical chips are decreasing and the cobbles with only few removals items.

Ten blades occurred here as well. The most abundant increasing, apparently raw material tests or misused pre- is of course productional waste, which fact is caused not only cores.

An almost continuous pavement of small chips, several by sifting the sediment Tab. The reduced cores are dm thick, lies at the periphery of this shallow pit.

Not even at predominated by flat cores and other flake cores as well as a distance of 4 m from the margin of the depression has at a exploited pieces.

Among flat cores the unifacial depth of 1. Quadrant 10 was situated in the middle of suggests that it is a one-shot productional accumulation close the pit, at its deepest place, and contained most pottery to the mouth of a pit.

At the same time, none of the reduction fragments as well. Charcoal from the depth of cm sequence components are missing so that probably only a few yielded the date GrA- The raw material pieces were taken away.

Low from the wall, there was a two times higher ratio of cores than quality of the raw material caused a quite extensive approach in the previous one.

We can register a moderate increase in to processing of the material extracted. Almost a half of the semi-cortical and non-cortical flakes compared to those with industry consists of waste and minute fragments.

Considerably lower is the ratio of waste. Flat core-like pieces vastly predominate the remnants and cores are distinctly predominant.

The most frequent flake cores are years, nevertheless they are almost identical from the view of usually the unidirectional ones Tab.

Flakes technology and composition and, moreover, interchangeable with cortex remnants are almost twice as many as the non- with characteristic industries of the Early Bronze Age.

Among Age, 1 small graphite sherd pertain maybe as late as to the reduced cores predominate the discoidal ones, almost all of Urnfields or the Hallstatt Period.

The most chipped industry them with centripetal reduction, and quite irregular. From the of the whole cut rested inside the fissures in weathered proper shaft bottom at the depth of cm come two granodiorite, which outcrops in the cutting above the said discoidal cores, one of them the most advanced from all of break at the depth of 30 to 60 cm.

One third of the dating back to the early stage of the Late Lengyel culture cubage, however, consisted of rock. The industry structure is GrA The composition of cores is similar to the previous one, extremely high is only the ratio of diametrically different from the previous sample, with cortical and above all semi-cortical flakes Tab.

The largest extraction pit of the entire mining area I is Thanks to a coincidence of technological traits with the date situated in its north part, E of the old branch roads, which are quoted we can assume that the relevant part of filling was penetrating the main road from the west side.

Perpendicular to thrown into the shaft from the close vincinity, possibly during this hollow way, i. The industry is therefore and 1 m wide Trench I in This revealed a shaft maybe mixed whilst the older component is prevailing, corresponding in its mighty size to the dimensions of a surface though not very numerous Tab.

Because of a low depression Profile 16a-b. This one yielded mouth of the shaft disappeared behind the end of the trench, namely a considerable amount of minute debitage and but the horizontal boreholes at the depths of and cm relatively few cores.

On this level namely the horizontal level have laid in a trench across a shallow depression in pure yellow sand was detected, which cm further bended order to investigate the remains of Mesolithic extraction.

This in the middle of the trench vertically down to the depth of can be followed up only from the depth of 1. There the prehistoric shaft ran against a very hard deposit recesses into a very hard granodioritic detritus with cherts.

In of granodioritic detritus with pebbles of the KL hornstone. In question is again proceeded down where it disappeared at the depth of also the origin of such a thick deposit on the original?

In the W front section this surface of Mesolithic extraction because in close vicinity are wall could be seen only at the south edge, namely as a not any Early Bronze Age shafts at least the typical symmetrical mirror image of its outline in the S section.

The extraction pits are missing here. Massive infeed of sediments sharp incision in its middle height undoubtedly marks out a by gravity is improbable with regard to small inclination of local enlargement of the shaft at the place of a richer seam.

It is also possible that the miners firstly had to dig borehole at the depth of cm about 20 cm away from the away some overlying sediments, creating then spoil heaps in N section recorded it at a distance of 60 cm.

It is obvious that the vincinity, which were levelled later, but still in the the shaft at these depths distinctly expanded towards north.

Thic may be also indicated Vertical borehole into the non-investigated block at the bottom by the mostly sandy less stony character of the overburden showed that the subsoil detritic deposit with cherts continues than that which would correspond to the seam extracted.

Charcoal from the The horizontally dug-away sand berm namely declined hearth was dated: The fourfold towards SW in form of two gouged-out steps down to the predominance of flakes over cores, and a large amount of fourth sandy level, the surface of which, once more minute productional waste indicate it is a homogeneous horizontally dug-away, lay cm below the upper level collection from a workshop in situ, where cores had been Photo XLV.

Various stages of core reduction are middle part of the filling it can be supposed that the extracted represented here very evenly. Among flakes predominate seam was represented just by this sort of deposits, containing those with cortex remnants, flat and other reduced cores are the sought-after chert breccias.

Even at the depth of 6. A borehole into the bottom detected lowly formalized, flakes irregular. As if this marginal zone 70 cm lower down some loose greyish brown sediment.

At the depth extraction pit in the central part of the mining area II. Fifteen between 90 and cm below the current bottom a bowl-like thousands kg of artefacts acquired thus come from a depression dating from the Urnfield Period recessed into the space sized about 0.

The initial hollowing-out of the shaft 26, and Many of the most typical artefacts are made of is associated, most certainly, with the assemblage discovered breccia chert, namely of a yellowish variety, which however at the depth of — cm, i.

The most remarkable technological 18, , and More than a third of the artefacts are element is represented by flat cores, mostly with centripetal made of chert breccias, all of them with fine glossy binder reduction Fig.

The average weight of breccia or parallel Fig. Several shapes look as if they were artefacts slightly exceeds that of chert products.

Compared to prepared for the Levalloisian method Fig. This phenomenon had been observed as well in another mainly on account of spatial context and technology.

Breccia cores had been the Trench II across a deep extraction pit Profile 17a-c, reduced exclusively by the discoidal method Fig. In five Photo IL.

It became apparent that it is a similarly sized shaft items we recognize ventrally thinned flakes Fig. The like that one in the Trench I and it also had been later re- relatively abundant waste more than two hundred pieces excavated in the upper portion of the filling.

The outline of without sifting indicates a collection emerged from a the trench in the north and south section is not the same, chipping process somewhere near the shaft, and thereafter since the trench had been extended in the meantime.

The thrown inside during the initial phase of its filling up. It is manifested without chipped industry. Its diameter was about 7.

The funnel- in the N-S direction along the bottom of an elongated shaped mouth of the shaft declined in form of irregular steps extraction pit, the biggest one in the entire extraction downward and at the depth of 1.

Both main sections and W side in the actual profiles. Thus, from the local the interpretation as follows. At the south end of the trench depth of 2 m downward this N wall lay about 3 m away from at the 5th metre occurs at the depth of — cm a more or the opposite drawn section, created only by filling.

The less horizontal deposit of stony detritic sand, which then course of intact shaft walls we then detected at the depth of declines downward together with the trench front, and later 5 m where from the N section emerged a very compact clayey- disappears therein.

The bottom consists partly of solid sandy sediment of rusty colour with an irregular network of granodiorite, rounded and covered with a sort of white lime, grey inlet rifts from above.

Because of the absence of stones, and partly of granodioritic detritus, very hard, with pebbles of the seam extracted must have been situated even deeper.

Granodiorite is covered at some places with a Perpendicularly along the projection of intact wall indeed thin layer of apparently intact sand.

The sand on the declined another brown clayey-sandy sediment with artefacts. The subsoil level ascended reddish-brown sands and loams, at some places with a below the S section, and above the granodiorite appeared not considerable amount of chipped industry, showed a sharp only sand but also breccia blocks.

The large pieces of chert inclination towards south and a moderate one towards west. On the surface of hard detritus were some high section thus the actual extraction bottom was situated.

In at the bottom of a depression. A very thick flakes with total weight of 74 kg. While in both industry, the most valuable collection is that from the Trench sections the chipped industry was not very numerous, with II, from the depth of — cm Profile 19a-b, Tab.

The ratio of breccias increases again with mentioned stone barrier appeared in the W section huge advanced reduction, among non-cortical flakes they create numbers of artefacts, leaving together with granodiorites and about a third, among blades about a half of the amount.

In explanation of this situation contributed a short unidirectional specimens Fig. N section, in which this thick deposit of chipped industry Most abundant are again the abruptly slopes down along a sandy-detritic loess deposit non-cortical flakes, blades sometimes of high quality, Fig.

The subjacent layer rests on large At the 1st metre of the E section, in this subjacent In the south extension of a massive elongated extraction layer there is an intrusion sloping south where it creates a Pit II lies a separate depression, at the bottom of which the depression filled in with dark rusty sand.

These are probably Trench II was opened, sided 1. The traces of the progress of a later extraction, which first took upper 25 cm consisted of sandy loess, and thereunder rested place in the older filling to cut it later in west direction aslant detritic sandy loam of dark colour.

In this layer, from the down to an unknown depth. The age of this further extraction depth of 1 m downward, large unrounded granodiorite blocks phase was revealed by another Trench II laid aslant into began to appear, which later covered the whole bottom of the the N closure of the extraction pit.

Most part of the filling is trench this filling, however, proceeded further downward. The Near the NW corner of the trench there was a spoil heap of situation can be interpreted as intentional ceremonial?

From the depth of 90— cm we took to the height of 1 m above the bottom, and we held it out a sample of chipped industry that occurred here in a originally for an intact wall.

However, it turned out these are distinct cluster. Remarkable is the 2. The accumulation fluently passes over into a thick numerous as waste.

Cores as the largest artefacts had been stony deposit in the lower part of the E section containing an probably picked up from the surrounding workshops.

The sandy loams with isolated stones, artefacts and scattered concentration of charcoal between the depths of 80 and charcoal. The deposit is water-impermeable and proceeds cm probably testifies to a similar process of closing the shaft down to an unknown depth.

Directly inside the largest like in the previous case. In its N section, this filling can be supposed below the with cherts, and the granodiorite bedrock appears only in boulder heap at its base.

Thereafter several episodes took form of boulders at the south edge. However, the original place with mass chipping of cherts, interleaved with reverse geological situation is considerably altered by extraction.

One of the phases of the chipping procedure left The section Profile 21 shows the stratigraphic sequence behind a dense horizon of chipped industry as well as at the detected.

In a trench 10 m long and 5 m deep we discovered base of the upper loessy deposit in the west section. The one- surrounding tertiary sand.

The excavation continued further metre square No. From 1 m2 come pieces of depth of 2. The composition - culture fig. The of industry is standard with usual representation of main charcoals from the depth of cm were also dated into groups Tab.

The lithic industry from predominate over the discoidal and flat ones 10 , numerous this trench Fig. Most flake cores show an irregular reduction sophisticated technological removals as preparational and sequence The only blade core is on Fig.

Here appeared also the characteristic multicoloured NW of the spot height Finds could be acquired from the breccia chert, reduced sometimes in the same "paralevallois" upper 60 cm pcs of chipped industry with total weight manner as at the above mentioned site.

From the depth of 0 to cm we counted altogether From the small space of a fifth of cubic metre come almost 4 cores with the weight of 62 kg, and 14 pcs — 57 kg of thousand 60 kg artefacts, in the range very similar to the flakes.

About a half of this amount was concentrated in the previous collection Tab. Flakes approach depth of cm. At all levels the unidirectional flake cores sometimes close to Levalloisian forms Fig.

There are more numerous and better mastered than the discoidal occurred 10 chipped-off crested blades and 23 different kind ones Fig.

Debitage is very coarse, as if large pieces of Among the cores from the small Trench III outstands raw material were broken up utterly casually.

Flakes are 44 a large breccia specimen with flat underside and arched times as numerous as cores, which probably means that upside Fig.

As an evidence of a completely different technique, The northernmost extraction pits of the 4th mining area however, also a large prismatic core occurred with front ridge are located below the upper edge of the slope and never go adjustment weight 1.

Another pits, lying as far as in the N part of the Up to now, no pottery fragments could be found in the adjacent plateau and on the other steep slope, belong already mining area IX, which is situated about m NE of the area to the mining Area V Map 7.

To this field we paid our III Map 5. It is the northernmost mining field of the south attention mainly in when four trenches were opened group in the closure of an erosion valley created by a small there.

All of them show a similar stratigraphy: In the axial Trench IX sands or hard loams rests a very light-coloured sandy loess above the current spring, the deposits of Holocene alluvial deposit containing sherds — in three cases from the Hallstatt sediments from the old spring horizon reach at some places Age, in one case from the beginning of the Urnfield Period.

In higher-situated portions of the In the darker and thicker bottom part of the filling there was same trench their thickness is reduced to 90 cm, and they no pottery found whereby the charcoal pieces from the cover the granodiorite bedrock, which is furthermore covered Trench V were dated back to the Early Bronze Age.

It ragged bedrock projections, but also large rounded boulders was the case of the Trench IX on the north directed surrounded for the most part by sterile sands.

In a cellar-like towards S slope above the spring where numerous chipped space between the boulders probably emerged an industry occurred down to the depth of 60 cm in shovelled accumulation of cherts, which are represented in the intact gravel-sandy sediments.

In the Even in the absence of any datable sherds, the chipped west section this seam is completely exploited and instead of industry from mining Areas III and IX shows such an it remained here loamy rusty sand with granodiorites and accordance that the contemporaneity of them cannot be pebbles of the KL chert, but with no chipped industry.

Although the Krumlov, yielded so far no pottery material. It testifies namely to a field where mainly subrecent stone pits occur in the stony massive illimerisation process where below the humus appears subsoil.

The interpretation of extraction in the Trench V is a bleached-out layer and thereunder a very compact thick very difficult, but also here one can follow up two main horizon enriched with clay, brown-coloured due to phases of filling up and furthermore maybe a trace of any precipitated iron and manganese.

The upper bleached-out older activity Profile 25a-b. Some more remarkable clusters layer of 15—20 cm thickness reminded of grey dust loam and of chipped industry lay at the depth around cm with a contained clusters of indistinct chipped industry.

Its lower piece of charcoal dated back to the Early Bronze Age: GrA- part was bordered by a thin rusty horizon and thereunder The In both corners at the bottom of the trench, in the E section closest relation to the above-mentioned date have of course appeared some finer, one shade lighter loams.

In the E section the assemblages from its vicinity Tab. Already from the depth of showing traces of the splinter technique , the discoidal cores 60 cm downward charcoal began to appear, which then are represented almost as frequently as another flake cores.

At the depth of — cm in the shapes, except for one unidirectional piece with centripetal quadrant 6D, there occurred two decayed charred logs or reduction.

All of them are wedge-shaped in section Fig. Just as in previous shafts, this collection testifies to a in thickness Photo LXV , surrounded by disintegrating relatively advanced core reduction core remnants, non- fired granodiorite blocks and numerous charcoal pieces cortical flakes, but not very much waste.

The first one of two On the opposite slope the mining Area VI is situated largest clusters of chipped artefacts occurred directly in this Map 7 where we already described extraction from the area, the other one a half metre lower down.

At the bottom of beginning and end of the Eneolithic, and extensive activities the trench not shaft at the depth of 2. Most valuable is the accumulation of chipped predominant in all the other mining areas, could not yet be industry with a charcoal deposit GrA However, the shaft The discoidal Fig.

Common traits of 39 is dated by many indications into the period under all collections from the shaft are the lack of minute waste, the investigation.

In the industry from the whole fill discoidal low frequency of flakes, the absence of regular blades and cores predominate over those with non-flat reduction, which predominance of discoidal cores Tab.

The first Trench VII was opened in the cut, all sections consisted of a very monotonous filling, less than 1 m N of the west end of an erosion furrow running most of the layers differed from each other only by the through the bottom of a valley in the east part of the mining amount of granodiorite blocks and chipped industry.

The area Photo XIX. A rich deposit of macrolithic industry filling consists of granodioritic detritus with sharp-edged as created a cluster sized about 2 m2, situated 5—15 cm below well as rounded grains up to large boulders of rock, which the actual surface Photo 8.

The largest industry there was also an increased amount of detritus and accumulation of big blocks is to be found in the N part of the coarse sand, probably deposited by water.

The investigated W section, in the opposite section then at the 5th metre and area yielded artefacts with total weight of 34 kg Tab.

The sterile subsoil occurred at 38, and 39, Fig. Comparing these data already 1—2 metres at the depth of 3 m.

It was created by undoubtedly indicates that the small fraction in the cluster is somewhat unmoved boulders of the volcanic origin rock in size about underrepresented pcs in favour of a higher occurrence one metre, which probably rest on the compact bedrock of cores 83 pcs and debitage.

The chert pebbles are not very frequent in the whole The most valuable information was offered by the Trench sediment filling, maybe because they were removed and VII, excavated on the slope about 40 m apart of the water splintered to pieces.

The entire trench rested in of chert in this type of sediment, but then in the mining area the filling, and we could not detect the edge of the shaft I we ran across a seam of similar, very hard granodioritic anywhere.

With regard to the size of the trench bottom this detritus, which contained numbers of the KL chert pebbles means that both the diameter and depth of the shaft must have and had been extracted in various periods.

It is likely that been considerably exceeding 3 m. This could be proved only by extending the trench there is a distinct, as though artificially levelled plateau trench northward.

Below them followed a multicoloured group of layer of surface humus and immediately thereunder down to strata consisting of Miocene sands with an extremely high the depth of a half metre.

Review of discoidal cores, quite occurrence of small quartz pebbles, distinctly declined towards developed and with all reduction schemes, is shown on Tab.

The transition between the subsoil and the strata with From among interesting shapes, two unifacial cores with finds is fuzzy. Chipped industry was not very abundant, which centripetal reduction Tab.

Although and 38 indicate a mastered laminar core reduction Fig. Another striking of the mining area II, below a sort of levelled plateau there is trait is the microlithic character of the assemblage.

The ratio of a group of boulders with flat upsides. Sediments rested on a flat predominate over the flake cores. We also recorded a single scorched bedrock at the depth of 0—60 cm, covered with ca blade Fig.

Seven years later it was followed by another the deposition of the strata with finds, however, regarding the longer Trench V, described in the text part dealing with the very moderate declination and small height of the slope above Early Bronze Age.

It is dated by a group of sherds and a completely absent here, cf. The irregular character of Bronze Age GrA However, the industry is caused by the use of raw material with many associated ceramics Fig.

The fissures, holes, petrosilexes, small quartz crystals, and with typical blades are missing, as well as the formal tools Tab.

The silicite matrix is very coarse-grained 46, and Due to the excavation method used, the advanced as well. From the only one square metre evaluated emerged workshop collection is probably a little depleted of small over 7 thousand artefacts Tab.

Among cores predominate the broken remnants and The extraction activity dating from the Hallstatt Period could fragments, followed by initialised pieces.

Blades are basically absent late period is based on the interplay of four indications: With the one single exception depicted, these shafts from earlier periods this is most obvious on lower blades neither had been used as tool blanks.

Down to the depth of 1. Further down the the preceding two criteria are not fulfilled; often we must shaft broke through variously coloured and with different content ourselves with the fact that the most thickenss of sand layers, in some places with detritus, but with characteristic traits of other periods are not present.

At the very bottom in the depth of about The first and the subsidiary fourth condition will be cm and below, there were fine yellow sands without any fulfilled in all of the situations mentioned above, the second stones.

Similarly as the shallow shaft 2, this trench apparently and third condition only in a few of them. The age of the late did not ran either across the seam with cherts.

In effect it is shafts could not be proved in a single case but neither undoubtedly connected with the absence of the usual disproved by a radiometric date.

However, even in an ideal enlargement at the bottom as well as the funnel-shaped mouth case, when all the criteria quoted would be fulfilled, we will of the shaft.

That feature created a moderate oval, which obtain only a terminus ante quem, because the considerably slightly exceeded 1 m in the E- i.

At the of a shaft when immediately filled up. We must further very bottom there was a very fine yellow sand containing a consider the fact that the younger the situation the higher is large amount of chipped industry and numerous sherds of the danger of contamination of finds i.

There was namely determination by M. Particular shafts were then dated to the Early Eneolithic and The accumulation at the bottom was taken out completely, indirectly also to the Early Bronze Age.

Initialised cores are a little more abundant brown sands with detritus at the border between the 9th and 50 pcs than the exploited cores 44 pcs , but over both 10th metre in the west section Profile 28, Photo XX and these groups predominate the cores under reduction, among LXIX.

Frequent is the reduction have been reaching down to a considerable depth, because a on the ventral side of thick flakes 10 pcs, Fig.

At the depth of — cm in the N section occurred concavity of knapping surfaces Fig. The flake types an inexhaustible amount of chipped industry together with with regard to cortex are in balance all together Tab.

Blades are basically missing, a blade core occurred only and even larger and strongly rounded granodiorite pebbles. Nine ventrally thinned flakes are Above and below the depth quoted, the chipped industry associated with flat cores on flakes.

The collection represents suddenly vanished. From the thick accumulation only a a balanced product of an intensive chipping activity.

The balanced sample was taken out Tab. Surprising is a relatively low frequency of flakes and the bottom of the shaft quite intentionally, and not waste and, on the contrary, a large number of cores, mainly accidentally during the filling up, so it is an intentional those that were reduced.

Among the reduced cores deposition. Another part of the same production probably got predominate the unidirectional forms.

The frequency of flakes to the depth of 3 m into the filling of the Shaft No. It is probably the remnant of a The next Shaft No.

Below the brown, at the structure and technology the collection exactly copies the base more black humous delluvial deposit with graphite assemblage from the bottom of the neighbouring Shaft No.

The unilateral that one filling in the mouth of the shaft 5. Down to the depth of 4. From among 26 flat cores, 6 are on flakes m we lowered the surface level by a quadratic excavation, Tab.

Among sparsely represented flakes predominate further down the shaft became wider, and for static reasons the semi-cortical items; blades are completely missing Tab.

The 51 and The middle of the been undoubtedly situated in the place of a remarkable 9th shaft, however, lies about 75 cm more eastward than the enlargement of the shaft.

A hand test pit into the E section shaft 8 so that it distinctly runs into the ground plan of the indeed detected after 45 cm a hard detritic sediment with Shaft 10, where it ends with a flat bottom at the depth of pebbles of the KL chert and granodiorite.

A test pit into the cm. It is possible that the test pit the shaft. In all samples, as standard, just as it was the case with the Shaft No.

Down to the upper part of the enlargement at the depth the stability of many features across all depths and backfill of 4.

This prehistoric test pit neither detected a bed of without stones, with two accumulations of chipped industry cherts, at least because it proceeded mostly through an old at the depths of — cm and — cm.

Most probably only some larger artefacts from the the Shaft No. Its mouth appears fuzzy in form of yellow nearby workshop were thrown in.

At the depths of 4. The Shaft 11 then ended with a horizontal, directly below a black-brown delluvial deposit with graphite slightly extended bottom at the depth of almost 6 m in a layer sherds, and breaks through the whole filling of the Late of fine rusty sand.

At the bottom again appeared a distinct Lengyel Shaft No. The profile of the Shaft 8 could be detected on sherds and charcoal.

According to a borehole into the W wall the E and W section, which are situated about 70 cm away at the depth of 2.

However, from the documentation is clear deep as 2 m below its bottom, on the bedrock , and no that the shaft was oval in plan, with the long axis of less than artefacts occurred in the filling as well.

Their concentration at 1 m parallel to contour lines whereby the length of its fall-line the very bottom of the resultless test pit is herewith axis in N-S direction can be only estimated — on the marginal undoubtedly intentional.

In contrast to another deposits it sections it seemed to be unrealistically small, and in between shows, as standard, a predominance of flakes and waste over it hardly exceeded 80 cm.

At the depth of cm occurred cores Tab. In two places somewhat higher up, the Shaft 8 In all the three Shafts 8, 9, 11 coming out of the upper disturbed towards south the Shaft No.

The very often only 1 dominant final scar. Unlike the unidirectional bottom with a dense accumulation of chipped industry was cores and sporadic cores with changed orientation, the pieces mantled with a deposit of brown-grey loam.

Just as the Shaft with two opposite platforms are almost missing and blades 5, also this shaft had not reach the seam with cherts, and and blade cores are basically missing as well.

The situation where later extraction disturbs a Late Except the bottom, there were no artefacts found in the Lengyel shaft occurs again in the Trench VI In the 1 m wide E section the filling of the Shaft 16 deeper the backfills of both phases of the Shaft 13 widened took up the whole width, and only at a depth of 2.

At the bottom of the pieces of hornstone. Except the massive concentration at the appeared large chert pebbles sized up to 20 cm, and even bottom there were basically no artefacts found.

Flakes and larger pieces of granodiorite. Both of the shafts proceeded waste predominate over cores; there occur many small halved further down, but narrowed to less than one metre.

From the and tested pebbles. It is pieces with serrated flaking surface. Thus, the course of the shaft 13B was strongly Another Shaft No.

Above this lowest shaft one could observe preserved in the W and S part. At the depth of 2. Its mouth therefore appears in the W section only preserved Shaft 13 has an about 1.

The probably intact sand occurs in the which it becomes considerably extended in the east section. N section as deep as 5. On this granodiorite bedrock at the depth of 6.

In extension at the bottom can be estimated to less than one the opposite W wall both of the undercuttings merged. The extracted seam was undoubtedly represented by minimum diameter of the Shaft 13A and 13B in subjacent gravel sands on the bedrock, on which accumulated chert sterile sands probably only enabled the passability of original pebbles can be found.

A special composition can higher-situated seam inside the detritic sand. From a thick be observed only in one scanty sample from the depth of deposit of chipped industry in the north undercutting we have — cm, because it yielded eight pieces of tested raw taken out 6 plastic bags full of artefacts Photo LXXXIV.

With the exception of tested observe a strongly detritic deposit. Below a metre of loamy-sandy delluvial deposits reached less or equal to 45 cm away.

Among two dozens of flakes and Shaft 13B, which is penetrated by the Shaft 13A. In a waste from the bottom there are absolutely no cores Tab.

Among 28 cores weighing 22 kg slightly predominate reduced A far more interesting situation loomed in the lower part pieces with prevailing flat reduction.

Among these, the of the trench. At the depth of cm, in a very fine sharply unifacial cores Fig. Further classification is shown which in the east part contained numerous artefacts and on Tab.

The most characteristic trait is represented by became a shade darker colour, but without any distinctive pieces of cubic scheme with several extraction surfaces border.

Blades are still sparse detected. Eine gute Idee braucht keinen speziellen Ort, an dem sie einem kommt. Auch keine besondere Tageszeit.

Sie kommt unter der Dusche. Bei Damian Manka 30 war das so. Er hat sich die Idee und die von ihm entwickelte Footbowl-Bahn patentieren lassen.

Relativ rasch nach der ersten Idee, merkte er, wie schwierig ihre Umsetzung ist. Anderes, also miteinander funktionierendes Material zu bekommen, das andere.

Die ersten, die dann kamen, waren: Und auch eine Rinne gibt es. Es gilt, den Ball auf der Bahn zu halten und mit so viel Tempo zu versehen, dass im besten Fall alle zehn Pins umfallen.

Gelingt das mit einem Schuss, ist es ein Strike. Ist es aber nicht, wie Manka sagt. Er hat selber Westfalenliga, also sechste Liga gespielt, kann also kicken.

Aber es darf ja auch nicht zu leicht sein. Footbowl Weltneuheit in Bochum: Leserkommentare 3 Kommentar schreiben.

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